Vertica Analytics Platform Version 9.2.x Documentation

CASE Expressions

The CASE expression is a generic conditional expression that can be used wherever an expression is valid. It is similar to CASE and IF/THEN/ELSE statements in other languages.

Syntax (form 1)

CASE  
  WHEN condition THEN result
  [ WHEN condition THEN result ]
  ...
  [ ELSE result ]
END

Parameters

condition

An expression that returns a Boolean (true/false) result. If the result is false, subsequent WHEN clauses are evaluated in the same way.

result

Specifies the value to return when the associated condition is true.

ELSE result

If no condition is true then the value of the CASE expression is the result in the ELSE clause. If the ELSE clause is omitted and no condition matches, the result is NULL.

Syntax (form 2)

CASE expression 
 WHEN value THEN result
 [ WHEN value THEN result ]
 ...
 [ ELSE result ]
END

Parameters

expression

An expression that is evaluated and compared to all the value specifications in WHEN clauses until one is found that is equal.

value

Specifies a value to compare to the expression.

result

Specifies the value to return when the expression is equal to the specified value.

ELSE result

Specifies the value to return when the expression is not equal to any value; if no ELSE clause is specified, the value returned is null.

Notes

The data types of all result expressions must be convertible to a single output type.

Examples

The following examples show two uses of the CASE statement.

=> SELECT * FROM test;
 a
---
1
2
3
=> SELECT a,
     CASE WHEN a=1 THEN 'one'
          WHEN a=2 THEN 'two'
          ELSE 'other'
     END
   FROM test;
 a | case
---+-------
 1 | one
 2 | two
 3 | other
=> SELECT a,
     CASE a WHEN 1 THEN 'one'
            WHEN 2 THEN 'two'
            ELSE 'other'
     END
   FROM test;
 a | case
---+-------
 1 | one
 2 | two
 3 | other

Special Example

A CASE expression does not evaluate subexpressions that are not needed to determine the result. You can use this behavior to avoid division-by-zero errors:

=> SELECT x FROM T1 WHERE
      CASE WHEN x <> 0 THEN y/x > 1.5 
      ELSE false
    END;