Transforms non-null values from a group of rows into a list of values that are delimited by commas (default) or a configurable separator. LISTAGG can be used to denormalize rows into a string of concatenated values.

Behavior Type

Immutable if the WITHIN GROUP ORDER BY clause specifies a column or set of columns that resolves to unique values within the aggregated list; otherwise Volatile.


LISTAGG ( aggregate‑expression [ USING PARAMETERS parameter=value][,...] ] ) [ within‑group‑order‑by‑clause ]



Aggregation of one or more columns or column expressions to select from the source table or view.

LISTAGG does not support spatial data types directly. In order to pass column data of this type, convert the data to strings with the geospatial function ST_AsText.

Converted spatial data frequently contains commas. LISTAGG uses comma as the default separator character. To avoid ambiguous output, override this default by setting the function's separator parameter to another character.


Sorts aggregated values within each group of rows, where column‑expression is typically a column in aggregate‑expression:

WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY { column‑expression[ sort-qualifiers ] }[,...])


   { ASC | DESC [ NULLS { FIRST | LAST | AUTO } ] }

WITHIN GROUP ORDER BY can consume a large amount of memory per group. Including wide strings in the aggregate expression can also adversely affect performance. To minimize memory consumption, create projections that support GROUPBY PIPELINED.


Parameter name Set to...

An integer or integer expression that specifies in bytes the maximum length of the result, up to 32M.

Default: 1024


Separator string of length 0 to 80, inclusive. A length of 0 concatenates the output with no separators.

Default: comma (,)


Specifies behavior when the result overflows the max_length setting, one of the following strings:

  • ERROR (default): Return an error when overflow occurs.
  • TRUNCATE: Remove any characters that exceed max_length setting from the query result, and return the truncated string.




In the following query, the aggregated results in the CityState column use the string " | " as a separator. The outer GROUP BY clause groups the output rows according to their Region values. Within each group, the aggregated list items are sorted according to their city values, as per the WITHIN GROUP ORDER BY clause:

=> \x
Expanded display is on.
=> WITH cd AS (SELECT DISTINCT (customer_city) city, customer_state, customer_region FROM customer_dimension)
SELECT customer_region Region, LISTAGG(city||', '||customer_state USING PARAMETERS separator=' | ') 
   WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY city) CityAndState FROM cd GROUP BY region ORDER BY region;
-[ RECORD 1 ]+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Region       | East
CityAndState | Alexandria, VA | Allentown, PA | Baltimore, MD | Boston, MA | Cambridge, MA | Charlotte, NC | Clarksville, TN | Columbia, SC | Elizabeth, NJ | Erie, PA | Fayetteville, NC | Hartford, CT | Lowell, MA | Manchester, NH | Memphis, TN | Nashville, TN | New Haven, CT | New York, NY | Philadelphia, PA | Portsmouth, VA | Stamford, CT | Sterling Heights, MI | Washington, DC | Waterbury, CT
-[ RECORD 2 ]+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Region       | MidWest
CityAndState | Ann Arbor, MI | Cedar Rapids, IA | Chicago, IL | Columbus, OH | Detroit, MI | Evansville, IN | Flint, MI | Gary, IN | Green Bay, WI | Indianapolis, IN | Joliet, IL | Lansing, MI | Livonia, MI | Milwaukee, WI | Naperville, IL | Peoria, IL | Sioux Falls, SD | South Bend, IN | Springfield, IL
-[ RECORD 3 ]+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Region       | NorthWest
CityAndState | Bellevue, WA | Portland, OR | Seattle, WA
-[ RECORD 4 ]+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Region       | South
CityAndState | Abilene, TX | Athens, GA | Austin, TX | Beaumont, TX | Cape Coral, FL | Carrollton, TX | Clearwater, FL | Coral Springs, FL | Dallas, TX | El Paso, TX | Fort Worth, TX | Grand Prairie, TX | Houston, TX | Independence, MS | Jacksonville, FL | Lafayette, LA | McAllen, TX | Mesquite, TX | San Antonio, TX | Savannah, GA | Waco, TX | Wichita Falls, TX
-[ RECORD 5 ]+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Region       | SouthWest
CityAndState | Arvada, CO | Denver, CO | Fort Collins, CO | Gilbert, AZ | Las Vegas, NV | North Las Vegas, NV | Peoria, AZ | Phoenix, AZ | Pueblo, CO | Topeka, KS | Westminster, CO
-[ RECORD 6 ]+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Region       | West
CityAndState | Berkeley, CA | Burbank, CA | Concord, CA | Corona, CA | Costa Mesa, CA | Daly City, CA | Downey, CA | El Monte, CA | Escondido, CA | Fontana, CA | Fullerton, CA | Inglewood, CA | Lancaster, CA | Los Angeles, CA | Norwalk, CA | Orange, CA | Palmdale, CA | Pasadena, CA | Provo, UT | Rancho Cucamonga, CA | San Diego, CA | San Francisco, CA | San Jose, CA | Santa Clara, CA | Simi Valley, CA | Sunnyvale, CA | Thousand Oaks, CA | Vallejo, CA | Ventura, CA | West Covina, CA | West Valley City, UT