Archive for September, 2011

Counting Triangles

by Stephen Walkauskas

Recently I’ve heard from or read about people who use Hadoop because their analytic jobs can’t achieve the same level of performance in a database. In one case, a professor I visited said his group uses Hadoop to count triangles “because a database doesn’t perform the necessary joins efficiently.”

Perhaps I’m being dense but I don’t understand why a database doesn’t efficiently support these use-cases. In fact, I have a hard time believing they wouldn’t perform better in a columnar, MPP database like Vertica – where memory and storage are laid out and accessed efficiently, query jobs are automatically tuned by the optimizer, and expression execution is vectorized at run-time. There are additional benefits when several, similar jobs are run or data is updated and the same job is re-run multiple times. Of course, performance isn’t everything; ease-of-use and maintainability are important factors that Vertica excels at as well.

Since the “gauntlet was thrown down”, to steal a line from Good Will Hunting, I decided to take up the challenge of computing the number of triangles in a graph (and include the solutions in GitHub so others can experiment – more on this at the end of the post).

Problem Description

A triangle exists when a vertex has two adjacent vertexes that are also adjacent to each other. Using friendship as an example: If two of your friends are also friends with each other, then the three of you form a friendship triangle. How nice. Obviously this concept is useful for understanding social networks and graph analysis in general (e.g. it can be used to compute the clustering coefficient of a graph).

Let’s assume we have an undirected graph with reciprocal edges, so there’s always a pair of edges ({e1,e2} and {e2,e1}). We’ll use the following input for illustration (reciprocal edge is elided to condense the information):



Ben Chuck
Ben Stephen
Chuck Stephen
Chuck Rajat
Rajat Stephen
Andrew Ben
Andrew Matt
Matt Pachu
Chuck Lyric

A little ascii art to diagram the graph might help.

I know you can quickly count the number of triangles. I’m very proud of you but imagine there are hundreds of millions of vertexes and 10s of billions of edges. How long would it take you to diagram that graph? And how much longer to count all of the triangles? And what if your 2 year old daughter barges in counting “one, two, three, four, …” and throws off your count?

Below we present a few practical solutions for large scale graphs and evaluate their performance.

The Hadoop Solution

Let’s consider first the Hadoop approach to solving this problem. The MapReduce (MR) framework implemented in Hadoop allows us to distribute work over many computers to get the count faster. The solution we describe here is a simplified version of the work at Yahoo Research. You can download our solution here.


The solution involves a sequence of 3 MR jobs. The first job constructs all of the triads in the graph. A triad is formed by a pair of edges sharing a vertex, called its apex. It doesn’t matter which vertex we choose as the apex of the triad, so for our purposes we’ll pick the “lowest” vertex (e.g. friends could be ordered alphabetically by their names). The Yahoo paper makes a more intelligent choice of “lowest” – the vertex with the smallest degree. However that requires an initial pass of the data (and more work on my part) so I skipped that optimization and did so consistently for all solutions to ensure fairness.

These triads and the original edges are emitted as rows by the first MR job, with a field added to distinguish the two. Note that the output of the first job can be quite large, especially in a dense graph. Such output is consumed by the second MR job, which partitions the rows by either the unclosed edge, if the row is a triad, or the original edge. A partition has n triangles if it contains an original edge and n triads. A third, trivial MR job counts the triangles produced by the second job, to produce the final result.


Let’s look at each MR job in detail. The map part of the first job generates key-value pairs for each triad such that the apex is the key and the value is the edge. In our small example the map job would emit the following rows.



Andrew Andrew, Matt
Andrew Andrew, Pachu
Andrew Andrew, Ben
Matt Matt, Pachu
Ben Ben, Chuck
Ben Ben, Stephen
Chuck Chuck, Rajat
Chuck Chuck, Lyric
Chuck Chuck, Stephen
Rajat Rajat, Stephen

For each apex-partition, the reduce job emits the original edges and all of the corresponding triads (there are ?(j-1) -> j=1 to d triads per partition, where d is the degree of the vertex at the apex). For each original edge, the key is the edge itself and the value is “edge”. For each triad, the key is the unclosed edge. In other words, the edge needed to complete the triangle. The value is “triad.” The actual code used “0” for the edge value and “1” for the triad value for run-time efficiency.

The rows corresponding to the triads emitted by this reduce job in our simple example are described below in the “key” and “value” columns (the original edges are also emitted by the reduce job but elided below for brevity). For presentation purposes we added a third column “triad content”. That column is not produced by the actual reduce job.



triad content

Ben,  Matt triad {Andrew, Ben}, {Andrew, Matt}
Ben, Pachu triad {Andrew, Ben}, {Andrew, Pachu}
Matt, Pachu triad {Andrew, Matt}, {Andrew, Pachu}
Chuck, Stephen triad {Ben, Chuck}, {Ben, Stephen}
Lyric, Rajat triad {Chuck, Lyric}, {Chuck, Rajat}
Lyric, Stephen triad {Chuck, Lyric}, {Chuck, Stephen}
Rajat, Stephen triad {Chuck, Rajat}, {Chuck, Stephen}

The input to the next reduce job is partitioned such that the unclosed edge of each triad is in the same partition as its corresponding original edge, if any. The reduce job just needs to check for the existence of an original edge in that partition (i.e., a row with value set to “edge”). If it finds one, all of the triads in the partition are closed as triangles. The reduce job sums up all of the closed triads and on finalize emits a count. A trivial final MR job aggregates the counts from the previous job.

There we’ve used MapReduce to count the number of triangles in a graph. The approach isn’t trivial but it’s not horribly complex either. And if it runs too slowly we can add more hardware, each machine does less work and we get our answer faster.

Experiences with Hadoop

I have to admit it took me much longer than I estimated to implement the Hadoop solution. Part of the reason being I’m new to the API, which is exacerbated by the fact that there are currently two APIs, one of them deprecated, the other incomplete, forcing use of portions of the deprecated API. Specifically, the examples I started with were unfortunately based on the deprecated API and when I ported to the newer one I ran into several silly but somewhat time consuming issues (like mapred’s version of Reducer.reduce takes an Iterator but mapreduce’s version takes an Iterable – they look similar to the human eye but the compiler knows that a method that takes an Iterator should not be overridden by one that takes an Iterable). Learning curve aside there was a fair chunk of code to write. The simple version is >200 lines. In a more complex version I added a secondary sort to the MR job that computes triads. Doing so introduced several dozen lines of code (most of it brain dead stuff like implementing a Comparable interface). Granted a lot of the code is cookie cutter or trivial but it still needs to be written (or cut-n-pasted and edited). In contrast, to add a secondary sort column in SQL is a mere few characters of extra code.

The PIG Solution

Rajat Venkatesh, a colleague of mine, said he could convert the algorithm to a relatively small PIG script and he wagered a lunch that the PIG script would outperform my code. He whipped up what was eventually a 10 statement PIG script that accomplished the task. When we get to the performance comparison we’ll find out who got a free lunch.

Here’s the PIG solution, much simpler than coding MR jobs by hand. We used PIG 0.8.1. We made several passes over the script to optimize it, following the PIG Cookbook. For example, we rearranged the join order and put the larger table last (I’m probably not giving too much away by mentioning that Vertica’s optimizer uses a cost model which properly chooses join order). We also tried several values for default_parallel and mapreduce.job.maps (and we changed the corresponding parameter in mapred-site.xml as well, just to be safe). We did not enable lzo compression for two reasons. First, considering the hardware used for the experiment (large RAM – plenty of file system cache, high throughput network), the CPU tax incurred by compression was more likely to hurt performance than help in this case. Second, one website listed 7 steps to get the compression working but the 2nd step had several steps itself, so I gave up on it.

The Vertica Solution

Can you count the number of triangles in a graph using a database? Of course. First create an “edges” table and load the graph. Vertica can automate the decision about how to organize storage for the table – something called projections specify important characteristics of physical storage such as sort order, segmentation, encoding and compression. In this case we simply tell Vertica how to distribute data among nodes in our cluster (Vertica calls this segmenting). Alternatively the Vertica Database Designer can be used to automate projection design. The following statements create our table and load data.

We’ve got the data loaded and stored in an efficient way. If we need to run more jobs with the same data later we won’t incur the load cost again. Likewise, if we need to modify the data we only incur work proportional to the change. Now we just need a horribly complex hack to count triangles. Take a deep breath, stretch, get a cup of coffee, basically do what you have to do to prepare your brain for this challenge. Ok, ready? Here it is:

Good, you didn’t run away screaming in horror. If we ignore the less than predicates the query is simply finding all triplets that form a cycle, v1 -> v2 -> v3 -> v1. The less than predicates ensure we don’t count the same triangle multiple times (remember our edges are reciprocal and we only need to consider triangles with the “lowest” vertex at the apex).

That’s it! A single, 4-liner query. Of course you’re interested in what the Vertica database does under the covers and how its performance, disk utilization and scalability compare with those of Hadoop and PIG.

Performance Study

The publicly available LiveJournal social network graph ( was used to test performance. It was selected because of its public availability, its modest size permitted relatively quick experiments. The modified edges file (in the original file not every edge is reciprocated) contained 86,220,856 edges, about 1.3GB in raw size. We used HDFS dfs.replication=2 (replication=1 performed worse – fewer map jobs were run, almost regardless of the mapreduce.job.maps value). Experiments were run on between 1 and 4 machines each with 96GB of RAM, 12 cores and 10GBit interconnect.

Run-Time Cost

All solutions are manually tuned to obtain the best performance numbers. For the Hadoop and PIG solutions, the number of mappers and reducers as well as the code itself were tweaked to optimize performance. For the Vertica solution, out-of-the-box Vertica is configured to support multiple users; default expectation is 24 concurrent queries for the hardware used. This configuration was tweaked to further increase pipeline parallelism (equivalent configuration settings will be on by default in an upcoming release). The following chart compares the best performance numbers for each solution.

PIG beat my Hadoop program, so my colleague who wrote the PIG script earned his free lunch. One major factor is PIG’s superior join performance – its uses hash join. In comparison, the Hadoop solution employs a join method very close to sort merge join.

Vertica’s performance wasn’t even close to that of Hadoop – thankfully. It was much much better. In fact Vertica ate PIG’s and Hadoop’s lunch – its best time is 22x faster than PIG’s and 40x faster than the Hadoop program (even without configuration tweaks Vertica beats optimized Hadoop and PIG programs by more than a factor of 9x in comparable tests).

Here are a few key factors in Vertica’s performance advantage:

  • Fully pipelined execution in Vertica, compared to a sequence of MR jobs in the Hadoop and PIG solutions, which incurs significant extra I/O. We quantify the differences in how the disk is used among the solutions below in the “disk usage” study.
  • Vectorization of expression execution, and the use of just-in-time code generation in the Vertica engine
  • More efficient memory layout, compared to the frequent Java heap memory allocation and deallocation in Hadoop / PIG

Overall, Hadoop and PIG are free in software, but hardware is not included. With a 22x speed-up, Vertica’s performance advantage effectively equates to a 95% discount on hardware. Think about that. You’d need 1000 nodes to run the PIG job to equal the performance of just 48 Vertica nodes, which is a rack and a half of the Vertica appliance.

Finally consider what happens when the use case shifts from counting all of the triangles in a graph to counting (or listing) just the triangles that include a particular vertex. Vertica’s projections (those things that define the physical storage layout) can be optimized such that looking up all of the edges with a particular vertex is essentially an index search (and once found the associated edges are co-located on disk – an important detail which anyone who knows the relative cost of a seek versus a scan will appreciate). This very quickly whittles e1 and e3 down to relatively few rows which  can participate in a merge join with e2. All in all a relatively inexpensive operation. On the other hand PIG and Hadoop must process all of the edges to satisfy such a query.

Disk Usage

For the input data set of 1.3GB, it takes 560MB to store it in Vertica’s compressed storage. In comparison, storing it in HDFS consumes more space than the raw data size.

At run-time, here is the peak disk usage among all 3 solutions in a 4-node cluster (remember lzo was not enabled for Hadoop and PIG – turning it on would reduce disk usage but likely hurt performance).

Given the huge differences in disk usage and thus I/O work, along with other advantages outlined above it should come as no surprise that the Vertica solution is much faster.

Join Optimization

As we mentioned earlier, the Hadoop solution does not optimize for join performance. Both Vertica and PIG were able to take advantage of a relatively small edges table that fit in memory (100s of billions or more edges can fit in memory when distributed over 10s or 100s of machines), with a hash join implementation.

For PIG, the join ordering needs to be explicitly specified. Getting this ordering wrong may carry a significant performance penalty. In our study, the PIG solution with the wrong join ordering is 1.5x slower. The penalty is likely even higher with a larger data set, where the extra disk I/O incurred in join processing can no longer be masked by sufficient RAM. To further complicate the matter, the optimal join ordering may depend on the input data set (e.g. whether the input graph is dense or not). It is infeasible for users to manually tweak the join ordering before submitting each PIG job.

In comparison, the Vertica columnar optimizer takes care of join ordering as well as many other factors crucial to optimizing for the job run-time.

The Right Tool for the Job

Many people get significant value out of Hadoop and PIG, including a number of Vertica’s customers who use these tools to work with unstructured or semi-structured data – typically before loading that data into Vertica. The question is which tool is best suited to solve your problem. With User Defined Functions, Aggregates, Load, et cetera available or coming soon to Vertica the lines are becoming blurred but when it comes to performance the choice is crystal clear.

In the case of triangle counting as we presented above, the Vertica solution enjoys the following advantages over Hadoop and PIG:

  • Ease of programming and maintenance, in terms of both ensuring correctness (The Vertica SQL solution is simpler) and achieving high performance (The Vertica optimizer chooses the best execution plan)
  • Compressed storage
  • Orders of magnitude faster query performance

Do Try this at Home

It is a relatively safe experiment (unlike slicing a grape in half and putting it in the microwave – don’t try that one at home). We’ve uploaded all three solutions to GitHub. Feel free to run your own experiments and improve on our work. As it stands the project includes a build.xml file which runs the Hadoop and PIG solutions in standalone mode – the project README file describes these targets and more in detail. With a little more work one can configure a Hadoop cluster and run the experiments in distributed mode, which is how we ran the experiments described above.

It’s a little more difficult to run the tests if you are not currently a Vertica customer, but we do have a free trial version of the Vertica Analytics Platform software.


Many thanks to Rajat Venkatesh for writing the PIG script (though I already thanked him with a lunch) and Mingsheng Hong for his suggestions, ideas and edits.

Vertica at BIRTE 2011: Social Graph Analytics

A few days ago, Lakshmikant Shrinivas and I gave an invited talk at BIRTE 2011.  Rather than yet another talk on Vertica 101, we chose to talk about Social Graph Analytics, a topic we are truly very excited about because it is something we are learning from our customers! And of course, it is uber cool to talk about Cityville and Zynga these days!  We presented the Zynga usecase  – how to find the influencers among the active users of a game and several other graph problems Vertica has very successfully solved with SQL.  More about these in future blog posts.

The most fun part of this talk (according to the audience) was that it was multi-threaded – we weaved a real-time demo through the talk. The demo was in two parts. The first part calculated an approximate 4-core of a graph of 90M nodes and 405M edges representing active users and their interactions in a game.  A k-core of a graph picks out a subgraph where every node has at least k neighbors in the subgraph – some research shows that the set of influencers in a social network is often a 3 or 4-core. The demo was run on 4 blades of the HP/Vertica Analytics System with 12 cores and 96GB RAM each. The animation below show an approximate visualization of the actual graph with 10K nodes and 45K edges (we could not find any graph visualizing tool that could draw a graph of 405M edges!) and how the algorithms iteratively reduces it to find the 4-core. The actual computation (which cannot be visualized) took about 1 minute to process 1TB of in-game event data to compute the initial graph of 90M active users and only 4.5 minutes to run 8 iterations resulting in the 4-core of 34K users!

The second part showed how this graph of influencers could be used to do A/B testing for in-game product placement. We simulated giving a group of users from the graph of influencers , Coke, and a group of randomly chosen users, Pepsi, and loading their in-game interactions data into Vertica, every 15 seconds. In the 5-minutes or so it took us to describe the setup, you could see how the relative penetration of the two products changed in real-time.  This was really a demo of Vertica’s awesome real-time analytics engine – we loaded data continuously at the rate of 40GB/minute (on 4 nodes with  2 copies of the data), which translates to 20TB/hr on the full rack HP/Vertica Analytics System.  That’s fast, eh?!!

This little demo and what our customers are doing in the real world, makes for a very convincing case that SQL can be used to express many practical graph problems. Vertica’s MPP architecture and sorted projections provide a highly scalable and fast engine for iterative graph algorithms. Such problems are relevant not only to the Zyngas and Facebooks of the world but to any company that has a connected user community. From online forums to friend-and-family call logs, social networks are everywhere and finding influencers is the key to monetizing them. Gartner believes that social CRM will be a $1B market by end of 2012!

We hope that our talk planted a small seed for the database research community to more formally explore SQL solutions to graph problems!  Watch for more blogs from Vertica on solving graph problems with SQL.

The Power of Projections – Part 3

By Colin Mahony and Shilpa Lawande

Part III – Comparing and Contrasting Projections to Materialized Views and Indexes

In Part I and Part II of this post, we introduced you to Vertica’s projections, and described how easy it is to interface with them directly via SQL or through our Database Designer™ tool.  We will now end this series by comparing and contrasting Vertica’s projections with traditional indexes and materialized views.

Row-store databases often use Btree indexes as a performance enhancement.  Btree indexes are designed for highly concurrent single-record inserts and updates, e.g. an OLTP scenario. Most data warehouse practitioners would agree that index rebuilds after a batch load are preferable to taking the hit of maintaining them record by record given the logging overhead. Bitmap indexes are designed for bulk loads and are better than btrees for data warehousing but only suitable for low cardinality columns and a certain class of queries.  Even though you have these indexes to help find data, you still have to go to the base table to get the actual data, which brings with it all the disadvantages of a row store.

In a highly simplified view, you can think of a Vertica projection as a single level, densely packed, clustered index which stores the actual data values, is never updated in place, and has no logging. Any “maintenance” such as merging sorted chunks or purging deleted records is done as automatic and background activity, not in the path of real-time loads.  So yes, projections are a type of native index if you will, but they are very different from traditional indexes like Bitmap and Btrees.

Vertica also offers a unique feature known as “pre-join projections”. Pre-join projections denormalize tables at the physical layer under the covers providing a significant performance advantage over joining tables at run-time.  Pre-join projections automatically store the results of a join ahead of time, yet the logical schema is maintained – again, flexibility of the storage structure without having to rewrite your ETL or application.  Vertica can get away with this because it excels at sparse data storage, and in particular isn’t penalized at all for null values nor for wide fact tables. Since Vertica does not charge extra for additional projections, this is a great way to reap the benefits of denormalization without the need to purchase a larger capacity license.

So to sum up, here’s how Vertica projections stack up versus materialized views and conventional indexes.

Vertica’s Projections

Traditional Materialized Views

Traditional Indexes

  • Are primary storage – no base tables are required
  • Are secondary storage
  • Are secondary storage pointing to base table data
  • Can be segmented, partitioned, sorted, compressed and encoded to suit your needs
  • Are rigid: Practically limited to columns and query needs, more columns = more I/O
  • Support one clustered index at most – tough to scale out
  • Have a simple physical design
  • Use Aggregation losing valuable detail
  • Require complex design choices
  • Are efficient to load & maintain
  • Are mostly batch updated
  • Are expensive to update
  • Are versatile – they can support any data model
  • Provide high data latency
  • Provide high data latency
  • Allow you to work with the detailed data
  • Provide near-real time low data latency
  • Combine high availability with special optimizations for query performance

That’s pretty much all there is to it.  Whether you are running ad-hoc queries or canned operational-BI workloads, you will find projections to be a very powerful backbone for getting the job done!

Read the rest of the 3-part series…

The Power of Projections – Part 1: Understanding Projections and What They Do
The Power of Projections – Part 2: Understanding the Simplicity of Projections and the Vertica Database Designer™

The Power of Projections – Part 2

By Colin Mahony and Shilpa Lawande

Part II – Understanding the Simplicity of Projections and the Vertica Database Designer™

In Part I of this post, we introduced you to the simple concept of Vertica’s projections.  Now that you have an understanding of what they are, we wanted to go into more detail on how users interface with them, and introduce you to Vertica’s unique Database Designer tool.

For each table in the database, Vertica requires a minimum of one projection, called a “superprojection”. A superprojection is a projection for a single table that contains all the columns and rows in the table.  Although the data may be the same as a traditional base table, it has the advantages of segmentation (spreading the data evenly across the nodes in the cluster), sorting, and encoding (compressing the size of the data on a per column basis).  This leads to significant footprint reduction as well as load and query performance enhancements.  To give you a sense of the impact that Vertica’s projections have on size, most Vertica customers have at least a 50% reduction in footprint thanks to our compression.  This includes the high availability copy and on average 3-5 projections.  Again, contrast this to traditional row-store databases ballooning upwards of 5x their original size and that is a 10:1 difference in Vertica.

To get your database up and running quickly, Vertica automatically creates a default superprojection for each table created through the CREATE TABLE and CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE statements. This means that if database admins and users never want to know about a projection, they don’t have to – Vertica will automatically handle it under the covers. To further illustrate this point, users can simply pass in projection parameters such as Order By, Encodings, Segmentation, High Availability, and Partitioning right after the CREATE TABLE statement, never interfacing directly with a projection under the hood.

By creating a superprojection for each table in the database, Vertica ensures that all SQL queries can be answered. Default superprojections alone will do far better than a row-store, however, by themselves they may not fully optimize database performance and Vertica’s full potential.  Vertica recommends that you start with the default projections and then use Vertica’s nifty Database Designer™  to optimize your database.  Database Designer creates new projections that optimize your database based on its data statistics and the queries you use. Database Designer:

1. Analyzes your logical schema, sample data, and sample queries (optional).
2. Creates a physical schema design (projections) in the form of a SQL script that can be deployed automatically or manually.
3. Can be used by anyone without specialized database knowledge (even business users can run Database Designer).
4. Can be run and re-run anytime for additional optimization without stopping the database.

Designs created by the Database Designer provide exceptional query performance. The Database Designer uses sophisticated strategies to provide excellent ad-hoc query performance while using disk space efficiently. Of course, a proficient human may do even better than the Database Designer with more intimate knowledge of the data and the use-case – a small minority of our customers prefer to do manual projection design and can usually get a good feel for it after working with the product for a few weeks.

We’ve heard people ask if we need a projection for each query in Vertica, which we absolutely do not! Typically our customers use 3-5 projections and several are using the single superprojection only. A typical customer would have the superprojection along with a few smaller projections (often comprised of only a few columns each).  Unlike MVs and indexes, projections are cheap to maintain during load and due to Vertica’s compression, the resulting data size tends to be 5-25x smaller than the base data. Depending on your data latency needs (seconds to minutes) and storage availability you could choose to add more projections to further optimize the database.  Also important to note is that Vertica does not charge extra for projections, regardless of how many are deployed.  So whether a customer has 1 or 50 projections, their license fees are the same – entirely based on raw data.

As you can see, projections are very easy to work with, and if you are a business analyst who doesn’t know SQL/DDL, that’s okay, we created a tool that designs, deploys and optimizes the database automatically for you.  Our objective from day one has always been to enable customers to ask more questions and get faster answers from their data without having to constantly tune the underlying database.  Part III of this post goes into more detail on projections versus indexes and materialized views.

Read the rest of the 3-part series…

The Power of Projections – Part 1: Understanding Projections and What They Do
The Power of Projections – Part 3: Comparing and Contrasting Projections to Materialized Views and Indexes

The Power of Projections – Part 1

By Colin Mahony and Shilpa Lawande

Part I: Understanding Projections and What They Do

Many of us here at Vertica have been amazed and frankly flattered at how much FUD our competitors are putting out there regarding Vertica’s “projections”.  Having heard some incredibly inaccurate statements about them, we’ve decided to clarify what they are, how and why we have them, and the advantages they bring.  Actually, projections are a pivotal component of our platform, and a major area of differentiation from the competition.  Most importantly, Vertica’s customers love the benefits projections bring! In an effort to provide you with as much detail as possible, this blog is broken up into three posts with Parts II and III being more technical.

First, some background. In traditional database architectures, data is primarily stored in tables. Additionally, secondary tuning structures such as indexes and materialized views are created for improved query performance.  Secondary structures like MVs and indexes have drawbacks – for instance they are expensive to maintain during data load (more detail on this in Part III).  Hence best practices often require rebuilding them during nightly batch windows, which prevents the ability to do real-time analytics.  Also, it isn’t uncommon to find data warehouse implementations that balloon to 3-6x base table sizes due to these structures. As a result, customers are often forced to remove valuable detailed data and replace it with aggregated data to solve this problem. However you can’t monetize what you lost!

Vertica created a superior solution by optimizing around performance, storage footprint, flexibility and simplicity. We removed the trade-off between performance and data size by using projections as the lynchpin of our purpose-built architecture.  Physical storage consists of optimized collections of table columns, which we call “projections”. In the traditional sense, Vertica has no raw uncompressed base tables, no materialized views, and no indexes. As a result there are no complex choices – everything is a projection!  Of course, your logical schema (we support any) remains the same as with any other database so that importing data is a cinch.  Furthermore, you still work with standard SQL/DDL (i.e. Create Table statements, etc).  The magic of projections and Vertica are what we do under the covers for you with the physical storage objects.  We provide the same benefits as indexes without all of the baggage.  We also provide an automatic tool, the Database Designer (more on this in Part II) to create projections automatically.

Projections store data in formats that optimize query execution. They share one similarity to materialized views in that they store data sets on disk rather than compute them each time they are used in a query (e.g. physical storage).  However, projections aren’t aggregated but rather store every row in a table, e.g. the full atomic detail. The data sets are automatically refreshed whenever data values are inserted, appended, or changed – again, all of this happens beneath the covers without user intervention – unlike materialized views. Projections provide the following benefits:

  • • Projections are transparent to end-users and SQL. The Vertica query optimizer automatically picks the best projections to use for any query.
  • • Projections allow for the sorting of data in any order (even if different from the source tables). This enhances query performance and compression.
  • • Projections deliver high availability optimized for performance, since the redundant copies of data are always actively used in analytics.  We have the ability to automatically store the redundant copy using a different sort order.  This provides the same benefits as a secondary index in a more efficient manner.
  • • Projections do not require a batch update window.  Data is automatically available upon loads.
  • • Projections are dynamic and can be added/changed on the fly without stopping the database.

In summary, Vertica’s projections represent collections of columns (okay so it is a table!), but are optimized for analytics at the physical storage structure level and are not constrained by the logical schema.  This allows for much more freedom and optimization without having to change the actual schema that certain applications are built upon.

Hopefully this gave you an overview of what projections are and how they work.  Please read Part II and Part III of this post to drill down into projections even further.

Read the rest of the 3-part series…

The Power of Projections – Part 2: Understanding the Simplicity of Projections and the Vertica Database Designer™
The Power of Projections – Part 3: Comparing and Contrasting Projections to Materialized Views and Indexes

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